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Social Justice in AustraliaYear 9: World War One: Trench Warfare and TechnologyYear 7: Roman BattlesYear 8: Human bodyYear 9: Agricultural ScienceYear 11: Foreign Relations since 1901Year 9 : Australian soldier of World War 1Year 11: Sustainable Communities
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Last Updated: Jul 17, 2017 URL: Print Guide RSS UpdatesEmail Alerts

Year 9: World War One: Trench Warfare and Technology Print Page

Information Sources


Illustration of Trench Warfare

trench warfare illustration


Books are great

There are many books in the library for this topic. 

The image which is titled A Cross-section of a Trench  and the following short passage can be found in the book, Evidence of War by Anne McCullum. 

"When the Germans and the Allies failed in their efforts to outflank each other, both sides dug trenches to provide soldiers with shelter from enemy fire. Each intended to hold its positions through winter in this way. Trench warfare was expected to be a temporary phase...None appreciated that trench warfare would cease to be abnormal, that stalemate would follow and become the way the war would be fought for almost four years."(McCallum, 2005)

Cross-section of a trench

Figure 1 Cross-section of a Trench. Source: McCallum 2005


The Skill of Paraphrasing

The skill of paraphrasing takes practice. It requires more than just changing a few words and altering the snetence structure.

Correct paraphrasing means completely reworking the source material.

So how do you do this?

You could try reading it first then jotting down the main points without looking at the original. When you are finished compare your paraphrase with the original work.

Here are some steps to try:

  • Use synonyms - use a thesaurus to find words with a similar meaning.
  • Change word forms - for instance, 
    "Secondary Students are expected to know how to reference their assignments."
    There is an expectation that secondary students can reference their assignment work.
  • Change the structure of the sentence.


  1. If you have only change a few words - then try again
  2. If you have changed the sentence structure but used the same words - then try again.
  3. If you have changed the meaning - then try again.
  4. If you have written in your own words and the meaning is the same - CONGRATULATIONS!

Paraphrasing Video

APA Referencing

Log in to CiteMaker and make a folder for this research task. 

Keep your references here while you research. 

Include only the references you use in your assignment in the reference list. 


Assignment Calculator from QUT

This assignment calculator can help you be on time with your assignments and help you through the process. 

Used with permission from QUT. 


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