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How to reference using APA style
Last Updated: Nov 10, 2015 URL: Print Guide RSS UpdatesEmail Alerts

Harvard Print Page

Quick Guide to Harvard

Where possible, the information for this guide has been based on: Snooks & Co 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, rev. John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Qld.

The general format for a reference:

Harvard has no one true style of punctuation but consistency is important.

Author, A  Year of publication 

Title eg.
Past lives: Unlocking the secrets of the past,  

Who published,

Where published.

For resources that are not books the format remains similar to that of a book.

Book one author

Wilson, I 2010, Past Lives: unlocking the secrets of the past, Cassell, London.

Book two authors

Burke, H & Smith, C 2004, The archaeologist's field handbook,  Allen & Unwin,Crow's Nest, NSW.

Book more than three authors

Bond, W, Smith, J, Brown, K & George, M 1996, Management of small firms, McGraw-Hill, Sydney.

(In-text citation: et al. is used instead of names of other authors  (Bond et al. 1996) )

Book with an editor

Penrose, J (ed.) (2005). Rome and her enemies: An empire created and destroyed by war. Oxford: Osprey.

Corporate author - groups including corporations, associations, government agencies, and study groups can serve as authors. 

American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington DC: Author.

Book Chapter

Barnes J 2010 Uylsses S. Grant. In Roberts A (Ed.), The art of war (pp. 212- 227.). London, England: Quercus.


 McNab, A  2006, Avenger, viewed 13/06/2014, OverDrive, < >

Academic Journal in print

Gabbett, T, Jenkins, D, & Abernethy, B 2010, 'Physical collisions and injury during professional rugby league skills training', Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 578-583.

Journal online from a database

 Sullivan, J  2013, 'Furman, after four decades', UMass Law Review, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 164, viewed 14/06/2014, Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web, < >

 Newspaper article

Madigan, M 2014, 'From humble beginnings to legal heights', Courier Mail, 2014, p. 5.

DVD/ClickView and Youtube - Either the producer's or director's name can be given, or both. 

Howard, R (dir.) 2001, A beautiful mind, Universal Studios, USA.

 Internet similar to a book - Author, A  year, Title of work Retrieved month day, year, URL.


 Rader's Biology for Kids 2014, 'Cells are the Starting Point', viewed 13/06/2014, < >

Webpage no author and no date

Pet therapy (n.d.). viewed 13/06/2014. <>

Online Encyclopaedia

Cell, 2014 Britannica School,



Origins of the Harvard System

The Harvard system is a term for any referencing system that uses author-date references in the text of the document, either within or at the end of a sentence. There is no definitive style guide for the Harvard style. The key to using the system is consistency throughout a document. In Australia,  the Harvard system is used in schools and universities is based on the Australian Government Publishing Service (AGPS) guide which was last published in 2002 by Wiley in  Milton, Queensland.

The Harvard system originated when Edward Mark, a professor of anatomy at Harvard's zoological laboratory published a paper in 1881. On page 194 of the paper he used a parenthetic author-year citation to show the sources he used within his paper. Until this time there was no standard. but over time his method of citation began to be used by academics. Interestingly, the origin of the name of  "Harvard system" is unexplained as the style was not introduced by Harvard University. 


Differences between Harvard and APA

  1. The list of references included at the end of a document is named “Reference List” in the Harvard System instead of “References” as in the APA Style.
  2. In Harvard brackets (parenthesis) are not used around the date.
  3. Abbreviations are used for volume (vol.) and number (no.) in Harvard.
  4. In Harvard the date viewed has to be included whereas in APA it is not required.
  5. Page numbers in Harvard are shown as p. or pp. whereas in APA just the number is given for example 51-55.
  6. The order of place of publication and publisher are different. Harvard puts the publisher first then the place of publication. APA Style places the place first followed by a colon then publisher.


Points to Note

  1. A list of references should be laid out alphabetically by author surname.
  2. If bibliographic information exceeds one line of text, then the following lines should have a hanging indent.
  3. The title of a book should be in italics. Minimal capitalisation is recommended (e.g. only capitalise the first word of a title’s heading/subheading and any proper nouns).
  4. A list of references should consist only of the sources cited in the body of the assignment.

Harvard Reference List



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